Dating exposed surface contexts
At Earth's surface most of these nuclides are produced by neutron spallation.
Using certain cosmogenic radionuclides, scientists can date how long a particular surface has been exposed, how long a certain piece of material has been buried, or how quickly a location or drainage basin is eroding.
There were gusts of up to 225mph and up to 30 inches of rain were expected in the Bahamas where a seven-year-old boy is believed to have drowned.
Decay rates are given by the decay constants of the nuclides.
It is most useful for rocks which have been exposed for between 10 years and 30,000,000 years.
Earth is constantly bombarded with primary cosmic rays, high energy charged particles — mostly protons and alpha particles.
'I heard her screaming and I wasn't sure what she was going through,' Rosie Granados told CNN in a heartbreaking interview on Sunday.
Her twin sister, Mary, 29, was one of at least seven people who was killed during the shooting spree.
When one of these particles strikes an atom it can dislodge one or more protons and/or neutrons from that atom, producing a different element or a different isotope of the original element.