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However, these methods require ancient remains to have certain elements or preservation conditions, and that is not always the case.Moreover, relevant fossils or artifacts have not been discovered for all milestones in human evolution.*Explorations in Diversity: Telomere Length and Aging Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 3: Population Genetics and Human Variation Probability Theory Probability rules Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Allele frequencies Expected genotype frequencies Why is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium important?How can we tell if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?Departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Multiple locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Assortative mating Inbreeding Evolutionary Forces Mutation Selection Drift Migration Combining forces Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Section II: Variation in Genes, Simple Genetic Traits, and DNA Markers Chapter 4: Blood Group Polymorphisms *Antigens, Antibodies, and the Immune System *The immune system *Innate immunity Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity)Genetic Polymorphisms in the Blood ABO, Hh (FUT1), Secretor (FUT2), and Lewis (FUT3) Systems The ABO histo-blood group system Hh (FUT1) and Bombay The secretor system (FUT2)The Lewis system (FUT3)*Explorations in Diversity: Histo-Blood Groups and Diet Geographical Distribution and Natural Selection of the ABO Histo-Blood Group System Cholera Syphilis (treponemal diseases) Plague Smallpox *Pathogen receptors Blood group associations Other possible selective factors and the ABO system The Rh System The Rh system and selection*Explorations in Diversity: Erythrocytes as Pathogen Decoys The MNSs Blood Group System The Duffy Blood Group System Other Blood Groups Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 5: Serum Protein and Red Cell Enzymes Detection of Genetic Polymorphisms Some Plasma Proteins Haptoglobin (alpha-2-globulins) Transferrin (Tf) Group-specific component or vitamin D-binding protein Immunoglobulins (Gm-Am and Km)Apolipoproteins, Beta Lipoproteins, and Beta-2-Glycoproteins Other plasma proteins *Explorations in Diversity: Novel Ways to Explore Human Variation and Evolution Red Cell Enzymes Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Other enzyme systems of anthropological interest Exploring Population Structure with Classical Markers Example 1: The Irish travelers or tinkers Example 2: The origins of Indo-Europeans Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 6: Human Leukocyte Antigen and Polymorphism The Major Histocompatibility Complex Location and Organization of the MHC Linkage Disequilibrium HLA and Disease Associations HLA and Population Diversity *Explorations in Diversity: HLA and Mate Choice?Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 7: Human Hemoglobin Variants Beginnings of Hemoglobin Research The Hemoglobin Molecule and Hemoglobin Genes Hemoglobin Variants The Geographic Distribution of the Sickle Cell Allele How resistance to faliparum malaria works The Possibility of Differential Fertility Origin of the Sickle Cell Allele Other Hemoglobinopathies Hb E (Hemoglobin E) Hb C (Hemoglobin C) Other Hemoglobinopathies of anthropological interest Thalassemias Alpha-thalassemias Beta- thalassemias Thalassemia Haplotypes The Thalassemias and Natural Selection Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources *Chapter 8: Milk, Taste, and Cerumen Lactase Restriction and Persistence Taste: Phenylthiocarbamide (6-N-PROPYLTHIOURACIL) Variation in Ear Wax, or Cerumen Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 9: DNA Markers Molecular Genetic Techniques and DNA Variation Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) Insertions and deletions ( Interspersed nuclear elements: SINEs and LINEs DNA sequencing Tandem repeats *Explorations in Diversity: Two DNA Vignettes from across the Globe *Copy number variants *American Indians The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Diaspora How Many Races are Documented in Our DNA?Analyzing DNA from present-day and ancient genomes provides a complementary approach for dating evolutionary events.Because certain genetic changes occur at a steady rate per generation, they provide an estimate of the time elapsed.

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Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Section III: Variation in Complex Traits and Other Variations Chapter 10: Quantitative Variation The Mendelian Basis for Quantitative Trait Variation Compontents of variation for a quantitative trait Estimation of Narrow Sense Heritability (h2) Narrow Sense Heritability of the Cephalic Index Multiple Quantitative Traits Evolution and Quantitative Traits Mutation Selection Genetic drift and migration *Explorations in Diversity: QTLs, LODs, and AIMs Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 11: Anthropometric Variation Anthropometric Measures Body measures Skin folds Head measures Variation Within Populations Genetics *Explorations in Diversity: Can We Tell Race from Cranial Measurements?

Discussing the use of probability and statistics in studying human variation and adaptation in a lucid and approachable way, the book provides clearly explained math that is kept to the level of basic algebra.