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Rodrigo Borgia was appointed Pope Alexander VI in 1492, a rule considered broadly corrupt, and he had Savonarola excommunicated, tortured, and killed in 1498.
The Italian Wars involved most of the major states of Western Europe in a series of conflicts beginning in 1494, the year the French king Charles VIII invaded Italy.
Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli wrote "Everything About Arithmetic, Geometry, and Proportion" (1494) which included discussion of the Golden Ratio, and taught da Vinci how to mathematically calculate proportions.
By the first half of the 16th century, the Renaissance was impacting and impacted by political events throughout Europe.
The French went on to conquer Milan in 1499, facilitating the flow of Renaissance art and philosophy into France.
Artistic works of this period include Botticelli's "Primavera" (1480), Michelangelo Buonarroti's relief "Battles of the Centaurs" (1492) and painting "La Pieta" (1500), and Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper" (1498).
Works produced during this period include Jan van Eyck's "Adoration of the Lamb" (1432), Leon Battista Alberti's essay on perspective called "On Painting" (1435), and his essay "On the Family" in 1444, which provided a model for what Renaissance marriages should be.
In 1452, the artist, humanist, scientist, and naturalist Leonardo da Vinci was born.
However, the roots of the Renaissance go back a few centuries further yet.In 1485, Italian master architects traveled to Russia to aid in the rebuilding of the Kremlin in Moscow.